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University Policy 40

Printing and Copying

Formerly Executive Memorandum 89-94
Initially approved October 15, 1989
Under revision

Policy Topic: Business Administration and Auxiliary Services
Administering Office: Student Affairs

It is in the University's interest to assure that commonly needed printing, photocopying, and typesetting services are readily available to campus units and that cost-efficiency is an integral consideration in the provision of these services.

This interest is benefited by having on campus a central Print Shop that is adequately staffed and equipped to provide these services, particularly for large volume production, and having decentralized copying capabilities in academic and administrative units, particularly for low-volume production. Good management requires that these capabilities be obtained with recognition of their full costs; that the University's expenditure for them be sufficient, but not excessive; and that utilization be efficient and reasonably convenient.

Conditions deemed necessary to achieving these outcomes are these:

  • All job printing within the capability of the University Print Shop will be referred to that shop.
  • All quick-copy services on the campus will be under management of the University Print Shop, thereby eliminating on-campus competition for quick-copy revenue.
  • Established criteria will determine when copy production is to be referred to the Print Shop or may be run on photocopying machines in academic and administrative units.
  • All of the University's offset printing equipment will be placed under management of the Print Shop.
  • Purchases of copiers, related sorting and collating equipment and desk-top publishing systems will be justified by production requirements and cost-benefit analysis specific to the acquiring unit.
  • Quick-copy services will be made readily available either by establishment of satellite copy centers under management of the Print Shop or, alternatively, by frequent pickup and delivery service for work to be done in the Print Shop.

The following Policies are hereby promulgated to establish the aforementioned conditions.


1. All quick-copy service at Western Carolina University shall operate under management of the University Print Shop which shall be a self-supporting auxiliary enterprise. For this purpose, "quick-copy" service is defined as photocopying or offset printing of 100 or more copies of a single page or, in the case of a multi-page document, a combination of pages and copies-per-page that exceeds 300 copies. When less than 100 copies are needed, academic and administrative units may elect to use either their own photocopying machines or the Print Shop's services. A quick-copy price schedule will be sent to all University departments at the beginning of each fiscal year for reference in determining the cost of quick-copy requirements.

2. Tests, examinations, and other confidential materials are exceptions and may be copied in the manner deemed best by the custodian of the material. Either the Print Shop or a school/department machine may be used, and no limit applied to the number of copies run.

3. All off-set printing equipment on campus shall be placed under management of the University Print Shop.

4. Other administrative and academic units of the University shall refrain from competing with the University Print Shop for copy service revenue.

5. Academic and administrative units of the University may acquire photocopying machines appropriate to their respective production requirements. The policies stated above must be reflected in assessing those requirements.

Purchases by University operating units of high-volume copiers, related sorting and collating equipment, and desk-top publishing systems must be further supported by cost-benefit analysis that demonstrates acquisition by the individual unit to be more cost-effective than reliance on Print Shop services, all elements of cost being considered. Guidelines for preparing the cost-benefit analysis for acquisition of copy machines may be secured from the Purchasing Office.

6. The Director of Auxiliary Services shall establish satellite copying centers at convenient locations on campus, or, alternatively, shall provide a convenient pick-up and delivery service for work to be performed at the central Print Shop.


The University's printing work shall be performed by the on-campus Print Shop in all instances where the work to be done is within the capabilities of the Print Shop and can be performed in a timely manner. The Director of Public Information or his designee and the Manager of the Print Shop shall jointly determine whether the work to be done is within the capabilities of the Print Shop. Cost quotations for specific printing jobs will be provided by the Print Shop Manager after review of written specifications furnished by the requesting department. Work that is beyond the capabilities of the Print Shop may be referred to off campus printers pursuant to procedures established by the University Purchasing Office.

It is recognized that specification of four-color printing frequently is related to institutional marketing objectives. It does not appear practical at this time for the Print Shop to acquire the equipment needed to perform four-color work. Therefore, a blanket exemption from the requirement of on-campus printing is allowed for four-color work.


Quick-copy service generally will be completed on the same day or next day following receipt of camera-ready copy. Large volume runs--i.e., those in excess of 16,000 total copies--may require additional time at the rate of one day for each additional 16,000 copies.

Printing service--off-set and letter press--generally will be performed in two to ten working days following receipt of final copy, camera-ready art, and specified paper stock. Key variables for each publication are number of pages, number of copies, typesetting requirements, binding requirements, and photographic work.

Job completion within the time-limits specified above shall be deemed to satisfy the Print Shop's obligation to perform copying and printing work in a timely manner. If the Print Shop cannot perform within these limits--and delivery within these limits is needed--the work may be referred to an off-campus shop subject to procedures established by the University Purchasing Office.

The intent of the aforestated policy is not to be frustrated by unnecessary delay in submitting work or unnecessarily short deadlines.

In emergency situations, work may be referred to an off-campus shop if the University Print Shop is unable to meet the emergency time table. Again, such referrals must follow procedures established by the University Purchasing Office. The presence of emergency conditions must be validated by the appropriate vice chancellor, and the circumstances that lead to an emergency time table shall not be willfully created.

These policies contemplate no change in the coin-operated copy service available to students in Hunter Library and Hinds University Center. The machines and the revenue therefrom shall remain under the management of the University Librarian and the Director of the Hinds University Center respectively. To provide additional service, any satellite copy centers established by the Print Shop will be equipped for autotron operation by University personnel and coin operation by students.

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